Appendix for “Exploring Consequential Robot Sound: Should We Make Robots Quiet and Kawaii-et?”

This page serves as the attachment to the manuscript “Exploring Consequential Robot Sound: Should We Make Robots Quiet and Kawaii-et?” submitted to the 2021 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).

All survey videos and associated questions are available below.

Introductory Module

Loudness Calibration

Loudness calibration video, played before all other videos.

What kind of listening device are you using?

  • Over-ear or on-ear headphones
  • Earbuds or in-ear headphones
  • External speakers
  • Laptop speakers
  • Phone speakers
  • Other: ________________________________________________

Introductory Example Stimulus

Introductory example stimulus video, featuring the Cassie robot.

For each of the following words, please indicate how much you do or do not associate the word with the robot you watched in the video:

 Definitely not associatedNot associatedSomewhat not associatedSomewhat associatedAssociatedDefinitely associated
Energetic      
Happy      
Feeling      
Social      
Organic      
Compassionate      
Emotional      
Capable      
Responsive      
Interactive      
Reliable      
Competent      
Knowledgeable      
Scary      
Strange      
Awkward      
Dangerous      
Aggressive      
Awful      
Post-stimulus questionnaire, found after every stimulus video including the introductory example stimulus. The questionnaire is based on the Robotic Social Attributes Scale (RoSAS) and the circumplex model of affect.

Study Stimuli

After each stimulus video, participants would answer the above post-stimulus questionnaire.

Study 1: Loudness, Pick and Place Motion

Study 1 Condition 1: pick and place motion at 36% relative loudness.
Study 1 Condition 2: pick and place motion at 56% relative loudness.
Study 1 Condition 3: pick and place motion at 76% relative loudness.
Study 1 Condition 4: pick and place motion at 97% relative loudness.
Study 1 Condition 5: pick and place motion at 117% relative loudness.
Study 1 Condition 6: pick and place motion at 138% relative loudness.
Study 1 Condition 7: pick and place motion at 158% relative loudness.
Study 1 Condition 8: pick and place motion at 180% relative loudness.

Study 2: Loudness, Screwdriving Motion

Study 2 Condition 1: screwdriving motion at 27% relative loudness.
Study 2 Condition 2: screwdriving motion at 39% relative loudness.
Study 2 Condition 3: screwdriving motion at 53% relative loudness.
Study 2 Condition 4: screwdriving motion at 67% relative loudness.
Study 2 Condition 5: screwdriving motion at 81% relative loudness.
Study 2 Condition 6: screwdriving motion at 96% relative loudness.
Study 2 Condition 7: screwdriving motion at 110% relative loudness.
Study 2 Condition 8: screwdriving motion at 125% relative loudness.

Study 3: Pitch, Screwdriving Motion

Study 3 Condition 1: screwdriving motion with a -24 semitone pitch shift.
Study 3 Condition 2: screwdriving motion with a -18 semitone pitch shift.
Study 3 Condition 3: screwdriving motion with a -12 semitone pitch shift.
Study 3 Condition 4: screwdriving motion with a -6 semitone pitch shift.
Study 3 Condition 5: screwdriving motion with a 0 semitone (none) pitch shift.
Study 3 Condition 6: screwdriving motion with a +4 semitone pitch shift.
Study 3 Condition 7: screwdriving motion with a +8 semitone pitch shift.
Study 3 Condition 8: screwdriving motion with a +12 semitone pitch shift.

Study 4: Pitch, Pick and Place Motion

Study 4 Condition 1: pick and place motion with a -12 semitone pitch shift.
Study 4 Condition 2: pick and place motion with a -6 semitone pitch shift.
Study 4 Condition 3: pick and place motion with a 0 semitone (none) pitch shift.
Study 4 Condition 4: pick and place motion with a +6 semitone pitch shift.
Study 4 Condition 5: pick and place motion with a +12 semitone pitch shift.
Study 4 Condition 6: pick and place motion with a +18 semitone pitch shift.
Study 4 Condition 7: pick and place motion with a +24 semitone pitch shift.
Study 4 Condition 8: pick and place motion with a +30 semitone pitch shift.

Closing Module

Free-Response Question

What part(s) of the robot videos stood out to you most or most strongly influenced your responses throughout the survey? Please describe your thoughts in at least a few sentences (200 characters minimum).

________________________________________________________________

Manipulation Checks

Study 1 manipulation check video.
Study 2 manipulation check video.
Study 3 manipulation check video.
Study 4 manipulation check video.

Which robot video had more loud, high pitch, or complex sounds than the other robot?

  • Robot A
  • The robots had the same sounds
  • Robot B

Negative Attitudes towards Robots Scale (NARS)

Please read the following statements on robots and indicate how much you agree or disagree with each statement:

 Strongly DisagreeDisagreeSomewhat DisagreeNeither Agree nor DisagreeSomewhat AgreeAgreeStrongly Agree
I would feel uneasy if robots really had emotions.       
Something bad might happen if robots developed into living beings.       
I would feel relaxed talking with robots.       
I would feel uneasy if I was given a job where I had to use robots.       
If robots had emotions I would be able to make friends with them.       
I feel comforted being with robots that have emotions.       
The word “robot” means nothing to me.       
I would feel nervous using a robot in front of other people.       
I would hate the idea that robots or artificial intelligences were making judgements about things.       
I would feel very nervous just standing in front of a robot.       
I feel that if I depend on robots too much, something bad might happen.       
I would feel paranoid talking with a robot.       
I am concerned that robots would be a bad influence on children.       
I feel that in the future, society will be dominated by robots.