Appendix for “SonifyIt: Towards Transformative Sound for All Robots”

This page serves as the appendix to the paper “SonifyIt: Towards Transformative Sound for All Robots” submitted to the IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L).

All survey videos and associated questions are available below.

Introductory Module

Loudness Calibration

Loudness calibration video, played before all other videos.

What kind of listening device are you using?

  • Over-ear or on-ear headphones
  • Earbuds or in-ear headphones
  • External speakers
  • Laptop speakers
  • Phone speakers
  • Other: ________________________________________________

Introductory Example Stimulus

Introductory example stimulus video, featuring the Cassie robot.

For each of the following words, please indicate how much you do or do not associate the word with the robot you watched in the video:

 Definitely not associatedNot associatedSomewhat not associatedSomewhat associatedAssociatedDefinitely associated
Post-stimulus questionnaire, found after every stimulus video including the introductory example stimulus. The questionnaire is based on the Robotic Social Attributes Scale (RoSAS) and the circumplex model of affect.

Study Stimuli

After each stimulus video, participants would answer the above post-stimulus questionnaire.

Original Sound Stimuli

Original sound, avoid motion.
Original sound, away motion.
Original sound, straight motion.
Original sound, towards motion.

Transformed Sound Stimuli (using SonifyIt)

Transformed sound, avoid motion.
Transformed sound, away motion.
Transformed sound, straight motion.
Transformed sound, towards motion.

Closing Module

Free-Response Question

What part(s) of the robot videos stood out to you most or most strongly influenced your responses throughout the survey? Please describe your thoughts in at least a few sentences (200 characters minimum).


Manipulation Checks

Manipulation check video.

Which robot video had more sounds or more complex sounds than the other robot? Examples of additional sounds include louder, musical, vocal, or other non-mechanical sounds.

  • Robot A
  • The robots had the same sounds
  • Robot B

Negative Attitudes towards Robots Scale (NARS)

Please read the following statements on robots and indicate how much you agree or disagree with each statement:

 Strongly DisagreeDisagreeSomewhat DisagreeNeither Agree nor DisagreeSomewhat AgreeAgreeStrongly Agree
I would feel uneasy if robots really had emotions.       
Something bad might happen if robots developed into living beings.       
I would feel relaxed talking with robots.       
I would feel uneasy if I was given a job where I had to use robots.       
If robots had emotions I would be able to make friends with them.       
I feel comforted being with robots that have emotions.       
The word “robot” means nothing to me.       
I would feel nervous using a robot in front of other people.       
I would hate the idea that robots or artificial intelligences were making judgements about things.       
I would feel very nervous just standing in front of a robot.       
I feel that if I depend on robots too much, something bad might happen.       
I would feel paranoid talking with a robot.       
I am concerned that robots would be a bad influence on children.       
I feel that in the future, society will be dominated by robots.       

Demographic Questions

What is your age?

What gender do you identify most with?

  • Man
  • Woman
  • Transgender Man
  • Transgender Woman
  • Non-binary
  • Other: ________________________________________________

Which racial and ethnic identities do you identify with?

  • American Indian or Alaska Native
  • Asian
  • Black or African American
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
  • White
  • Other (please specify): ________________________________________________

What area(s) do you work or did you most recently work in?

  • Agriculture, Food, and Nature Resources
  • Arts, Audio/Video Technology and Communications
  • Education and Training
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Information technology
  • Manufacturing
  • Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Business Management and Administratin
  • Finance
  • Health Sciences
  • Human Services
  • Law, Public Safety, Corrections, and Security
  • Marketing, Sales, and Service
  • Transportation, Distribution, and Logistics

What education level have you attained?

  • Less than high school
  • High school graduate
  • Some college
  • 2 year degree
  • 4 year degree
  • Professional degree
  • Doctorate

Have you had higher education, formal training, hobbies or employment in science, engineering, technology, or mathematics? (yes/no)

Have you had higher education, formal training, hobbies, or employment in music or sound-related fields? (yes/no)